Za časa, ko je iz Krnskega gradu vladal vojvoda Karast, je bilo področje med Vrbskim jezerom in Dravo pokrito z močvirjem, grmovjem in drevesi. Višje v hribih se je pasla živina, medtem ko so ljudje le redko zašli v te kraje. Niso si upali, ker se marsikdo, ki je tja odše, nikoli več ni vrnil. Včasih je izginila celo krava. Nihče nikoli ni videl tistega, ki jemlje živalska in človeška življenja, ker je področje venomer pokrito z gosto meglo. Slišati je bilo samo glasno renčanje in zavijanje kake živali in vetra.
Vojvoda je prosil najpogumnejše može za pomoč. Naj najdejo in pokončajo to pošast. Skrito pošast je bilo iz njenega brloga izvabiti samo z ukano. Na robu močvirja so zgradili močan opazovalni stolp. Vojščaki so bili motivirani z bogato nagrado, ki jo je obljubljal vojvoda: Tisti, ki bo ubil pošast bo dobil stolp in veliko bogastva; celotno ozemlje od ene reke do druge; in področje kjer je živela pošast; če bo tisti mož suženj, bo osvobojen.
Delavci so na verigo priklenili debelega bika. Prestrašen bik je kmalu pritegnil pozornost pošasti. Voda je začela brbotati, veliki kosi blata so začeli leteti po zraku. Krilata kača s kožo prekrito z oklepom je priplavala iz vode kot strela. Njeni kremplji so zgrabili žival, gobec se je odprl, da bi jo še pogoltnila. Zagrizla je v verigo. S kremplji je jezno zamahnila in predrla bikov trebuh. Takrat so delavci skočili in z ježevkami in kiji ubili pošast. Tako je bila dežela rešena Lindwurmske pošasti.
Na mestu, kjer so ubili pošast so zgradili vas, vojvoda pa je zgradil grad na mestu, kjer je takrat stal stolp. Skozi stoletja sta ta grad in vas zrastla v mesto, današnje glavno mesto dežele, Celovec.
Astrološka ura na mestni hiši Starega mesta je bila narejena v 15. stol. (1490). Ura ne kaže samo časa, ampak tudi položaj sonca, lune itd. Poslikani koledar kaže dneve svetnikov, znamenja horoskopa ter dneve v mesecu. Legenda pravi, da so mojstra Hanuša, ki je izpopolnil ta mehanizem, mestni očetje oslepili, da ne bi prenašal skrivnosti naprej. Toda Hanuš je prepričal svojega vajenca, da ga je odpeljal v stolp do ure. Tam je potisnil v mehanizem orodje in ga ustavil za 80 let.
Predstava apostolov se zgodi vsakič, ko ura odbije polno uro. Najprej figura Smrti na desni strani ure potegne vrv, ki jo drži v desni roki. V levi roki ima urno steklo, ki ga dvigne in obrne. Dve okni se odpreta in Apostoli (11 Apostolov in sv. Pavel) počasi sledijo sv. Petru. Na koncu tega dela petelin zakikirika in ura odbije. Naslednja premikajoča figura je Turek, simbol poželenja, ki premika glavo iz ene strani na drugo, Domišljavost, ki se gleda v ogledalo in Pohlep, ki je izposojen iz srednjeveškega židovskega posojevalca denarja.
Po projektantovem pogledu na Vesolje, je Zemlja postavljena v center. Namen ure ni prikazati točen čas, ampak imitirati orbite sonca in lune okrog Zemlje. Kazalec s soncem kaže tri različne čase: na zunanjem krogu so srednjeveške arabske številke, ki merijo star bohemski čas, v katerem je bilo 24 ur dneva preračunano od sončnega zahoda. Krog z rimskimi številkami, kaže čas, ki ga poznamo danes. Modri del ure predstavlja vidni del neba. Razdeljen je na 12 delov. V tako imenovanem babilonskem času je bil del dneva s sončno svetlobo razdeljen na 12 ur, ki so varirale glede na letni čas (poletje, zima). Ura prav tako kaže položaj sonca in lune skozi 12 astroloških znamenj.
Spodaj je še koledar Jozefa Manesa iz leta 1866. Preštudiral je življenje bohemskega kmeta in ga prikazal s slikami za vsak mesec posebej. Na sredini je grb Starega mesta, za njim so meseci in astrološka znamenja, nato meseci prikazani z delom kmeta ter na zunanji strani še dnevi v letu.
Preden se lotimo izdelave katerekoli postelje, moramo vedeti dimenzijo posteljnega vložka ali vzmetnice. Mi smo se odločili za nekoliko večjo otroško posteljo. Torej za posteljo dimenzije 70×160 cm. Vso opremo za to posteljo lahko kupite v trgovinah Ikea. Postelja je narejena iz smrekovega lesa, lakirana z vodnim lakom.
Za izdelavo postelje potrebujemo naslednje elemente (debelinaxširinaxdolžina v mm):
- noga postelje; 40x70x570; 4 kos
- spodnji prečnik prečne stranice; 20x120x630; 2 kos
- zgornji prečnik prečne stranice; 20x40x630; 2 kos
- pokončniki prečne in vzdolžne stranice; 15x40x270; 19 kos
- pokončniki prečne in vzdolžne stranice; 20x40x270; 6 kos
- vzdolžna stranica; 20x120x1610; 2 kos
- vzdolžna stranica; 20x40x1610; 1 kos
- nosilna letev dna postelje; 35x35x1500 mm; 2 kos
Vsi robovi pokončnikov ter po dva robova zgornjih prečnikov in vzdolžnikov so zaokoroženi, v našem primeru r=6 mm.
Potem, ko imamo vse elemente pripravljene, torej poskoblane, robove zaokrožene ter zbrušene, začnemo s stestavljanjem. Najprej sestavimo “lestve”, stranice postelje. Glede na to, da je širina stranice 770 oz. 1610 mm in da je širina letvice 40 mm, naredimo razmak med letvicami 78 (pri krajši stranici) oz. 91 (pri daljši stranici) mm. Spoji so mozničeni.
Na koncu vse štiri elemente še sestavimo tako, da dobimo notranjo dimenijo postelje 710×1610 mm. Vogalni spoj naredimo s prečno matico. Z lesnimi vijaki pritrdimo še nosilce dna postelje. Dno postelje pritrdimo na višino, katera je odvisna od debeline vzmetnice in željeno višino postelje.
The Ljubljanica river, which is also called The River of Seven Names, is the lower reaches of a karst river which on its way towards Ljubljana disappears underground a number of times and springs again at different places, every time under a different name. Spring in near Vrhnika. Ten kilometres to the north-east of Ljubljana city centre it empties itself into the Sava river. Until the railway became a commonly used means of transportation in the middle of the 19. century, it was the main route for carrying goods to and from Ljubljana. The main quay was located at the present Breg embankment.
Ljubljana is a city of many beautiful and interesting bridges. It is believed that the first bridge across the Ljubljanica river was built back in Roman times, most probably somewhere between the present Cobblers’ Bridge (Čevljarski most) and Šentjakob Bridge (Šentjakobski most). The medieval Ljubljana boasted two wooden bridges, an old bridge located at the site of the present Triple Bridge (Tromostovje) and the Butchers’ Bridge (Mesarski most), which was located at the site of the present Cobblers’ Bridge. At the end of the 18th century, when the city walls were pulled down, the danger of floods was reduced with the building of the Gruber Canal (Grubarjev prekop) in 1783, and the city expanded to the left bank of the Ljubljanica river, a number of new wooden bridges were built and later replaced by metal, stone or concrete ones.
The Ljubljanica river often flooded until the course of the river was thoroughly improved in the first half of the 20. century. The riverbed tried to be regulated already in 16. century and before, but with no success. Bigger works started already in middle 19. century. In 1912 they deepened the river bed. Later they deepened Gruber channel as well. But this was still not the solution to the problem. Today’s tamed Ljubljanica river and its attractive concrete embankments owe much of their appearance to architect Jože Plečnik. He redesigned the embankments with tree-lined walks including the romantic multi-level willow-lined walk running along the length of the Trnovski pristan embankment, and designed or redesigned a range of bridges on the Ljubljanica river and its tributaries, including the Trnovo Bridge (Trnovski most), the Cobblers’ Bridge and the centrally located Triple Bridge, which considerably contribute to the city’s unique character.
The row of houses on right bank of the river still has balconies, that over 100 years ago had all houses on the bank. They were made from wood and were big threat for the fire in the town. On this side were also toilets, all dirt they throw on the bank, so because of that the bad smell spreaded all around. Citizens started to complain (because of fire danger and smell), but no success. All they achieve was, that inhabitants of those houses had to arrange the toilets in the house. The dirt has to be leaded directly into the river. Today those balconies are not wooden any more.
The oldest bridge in Ljubljana was on a place of today’s Cobbler’s bridge. It was called Upper bridge (Zgornji most), Butcher’s bridge (Mesarski most), because the butchers have their shops on or Šuštar bridge (Šuštarski most). It was also named Upper bridge, while Špital bridge was Lower bridge. Špital bridge was usually used by traders and foreign cargo carriers, while locals used Butcher’s bridge. The site of the present Cobblers’ Bridge (Čevljarski most), which was built by architect Jože Plečnik between 1931 and 1932, was formerly occupied by a covered wooden bridge, which connected the two main parts of medieval Ljubljana, namely the Mestni trg square (Town Square) and the Novi trg square (New Square). The bridge provided space for cobblers’ workshops, after whom it was named. Its main attraction was the statue of Christ at its south end, which now stands in the Church of St. Florian (Cerkev sv. Floriana). The 19. century saw the building of a new, cast iron bridge, which was on the initiative of architect Plečnik moved to the site opposite the Ljubljana Maternity Hospital to connect the Zaloška cesta and the Poljanska cesta roads.
The present Cobblers’ Bridge (built in 1931 – 1932) was, like architect Plečnik’s Trnovo Bridge (Trnovski most), conceived as a broad balustraded platform connecting two different parts of the city. Like the Triple Bridge (Tromostovje) it was made of artificial stone. Its characteristic appearance is due to its balustrades with short balusters and tall, different sized pillars topped with stone balls. The central two pillars support lamps and are slightly shorter, which gives the bridge an original and dynamic appearance. The bridge platform is on the sides decorated with a geometric pattern. The balustrades were renovated in 1991.
The present Dragon Bridge (Zmajski most) across the Ljubljanica river was built to replace the former wooden bridge called the Butchers’ Bridge (Mesarski most), which was built in 1819. For reasons of economy, the Municipality of Ljubljana, who financed the building of the bridge, decided on a reinforced concrete construction, which was less expensive and more modern than stone constructions.
Built in the years 1900 to 1901 under the name of Jubilee Bridge (Jubilejni most), Dragon Bridge was Slovenia’s first bridge with an asphalt paving. It is one of Ljubljana’s most representative examples of Art Nouveau architecture, the city’s first reinforced concrete bridge, and one of the first bridges of the kind in Europe. It was constructed by Professor Josef Melan, a famous engineer specializing in reinforced concrete bridge engineering and the father of the theory for large arched bridges statics calculations.
The Art Nouveau appearance of the bridge is due to the Dalmatian architect Jurij Zaninović, who studied under Professor Otto Wagner. He designed the decorative concrete covering, the balustrades and the sheet-copper dragon statues, which became the symbol of Ljubljana. The original designs envisaged winged lions instead of dragons. The bridge lamps, which used to be fuelled by gas, are part of the original decoration.
It was built to remembrance to Austro-Hungarian emperor Franc Josef what it can be seen from year on the bridge 1848 – 1888.
Špital bridge (Lower bridge) was second built bridge in Ljubljana. In 1280 was mentioned for the first time as Old bridge. It was rebuilt many times. Later in middle ages were on the bridge butchers’ stands, later, on one built in baroque time there were already wooden hovels (kolibe). In those hovels manufacturers were selling their products. With removing the old wooden bridge in 1842, all hovels were removed. Some manufacturers found the place for selling the products in Čopova street. New, stony bridge was named after archduke Franz Karl.
The central of the present three bridges forming the Triple Bridge (Tromostovje) has stood in its place since 1842, when it replaced an old, strategically important medieval wooden bridge, which used to be a transit route between the countries of the North-western Europe and the South-eastern Europe including the Balkans. The Triple Bridge as a unique architectural speciality of Ljubljana was created when between the years 1929 and 1932 two more bridges, intended for pedestrians, were added to the original stone bridge by architect Jože Plečnik.
Plečnik removed the metal balustrades from the old stone bridge and furnished all the three bridges with massive stone balustrades and lamps. From each of the side bridges two stairways lead to the terraces situated just above the river, where poplar trees were planted to contribute to the overall appearance of the bridge.
On the right bank of the river, the bridge is enhanced by a small flower shop sited at the end of the Ljubljana Central Market colonnade, and on the right bank by a kiosk. Positioned on the crossing of the river axis and the axis running between the Rožnik hill and the Castle Hill, the Triple Bridge is the key point on Plečnik’s urban axes. In 1992, the Triple Bridge was thoroughly renovated.
Name Piran comes from PYROS or PYR, Greek word for fire or light house, originally light was here to navigate boats to Koper.
The ancient town with narrow streets. With its 5.000 inhabitants (12 churches and 2 priests), Piran is the best preserved old town on the Slovene coast, and is protected as an urban, cultural and historic monument. Narrow streets make Piran’s traffic impossible. Parking places are outside old part of the town. Town centre is open only for locals and supplying.
Settlement was founded by refugees from Aquilea, after the town was destroyed in 5. century by Atila the Hun. Some documents from 7. century are saying, that on the site of today’s Piran was fort under Byzantine administration. Town wall was originally only around Punta. At the end of 13. century Piran came under Venetian rule. Town started to grow to east. Port Campo (Field gate) in 15. century and Marčano in early 16. century still inside the town wall. Danger of attacks by Turks army was still big. During 16. and 17. century growth was continued outside the town wall toward Portorož. Wall was ruined in early 20. century. Of original 2 km long wall, today still stands about 200 metres long stretch.
Citizens lived mostly from maritime trade, fishing and salt-works. They had salt-works around Lucija, Sečovlje and Strunjan. Venetian rule lasted from 1283 to 1797, after was under Hapsburg’s rule. After World War 2 was as Koper in Zone B, joined to Slovenia in 1954.
You need to park your car outside the old town. You can take a bus, which stops at the entrance to the garage, or you can take 15 minutes long walk to Tartini square. I think is it is worth of spending time and shoes and walk narrow streets to the square. The way takes you to the bus station and just after the station a pedestrian street turns to the right. Just go straight, pass an old Marcana Gate to the town. The street takes you directly to Tartini square.
- Tartini square: On the place of the square was until 1894 a harbour for the fishing boats of Piran. In 1894 it was filled in because of the bad smell and health reasons. It used to be outside the town wall. Buildings around the square are built in different styles. From Venetian Gothic to Vienna Classicism. On the middle of the square is statue of Giusepe Tartini, Italian violinist and composer, born in 1692 in a house on North-East side of the square. He lived and worked in the shadow of Vivaldi, just like Solieri lived and worked in the shadow of Mozart. Important buildings and structures around the square are: stone flag poles, Court House, Town Hall, Loggia, Polish gate, Venetian house, Tartini house, and church of St. Peter. Close to the square is also Sergej Mašera Museum and Aquarium. From the square on the top of the hill you can see church of St. George. See the angel at the top of the campanile, how it follows a wind direction.
- Town hall: When the Venetians came to Piran at the endo of 13. century, they built the Town Hall building outside the town walls just close to the harbour. It was built in the Roman-Gothic style with lot of inscriptions and coats of arms on the facade. In 1877 it was demolished and built a new one. New Town Hall was built in Vienna style, Vienna Classicism. Number of ornaments are built in to the facade from the old building. Lion with an open book, coats of arms,…
- Venetian house: Red house built in 15. century, the oldest preserved house on Tartini square. The most beautiful example of Venetian architecture in Piran. Windows and corner balcony are the most impressive. Between the windows on the second floor there is a stone relief with the inscription: LASA PUR DIR…let them talk. According to the legend the house was built by a rich Venetian merchant. In the time when Piran was part of Venetian Republic and the maritime trade was flourishing, big number of merchants came to Piran. One day a wealthy merchant from Venice fell in love with a local girl. Locals started to talk about their love and life. But he wanted to show his beloved the power of his love and built her a house. With the inscription “let them talk” he showed to the locals how he doesn’t care about their gossips.
Continue passing the Venetian house. Across the street is Loggia and the Polish Gate. Turn left up the hill. Soon you’ll come to one of the remains of the town wall.
- City wall: The oldest town centre was built in 7. century. It was situated close to the end of peninsula. As the town expanded outside the town wall, town had to move the wall towards south-east. In the final phase of the expansion at the beginning of 16. century, the so called third town wall was built. The largest part of the wall was built in 15. and 16. century. Total length was about 200 meters, today left only 200 meters of wall.
Before the town wall turn to the left to the church of St. George.
- Church of St. George (Jurij): First you pass octagonal baptistery from 17. century and the last building of the new church complex. Bell tower is from 17. century, very fine copy of Venetian Campanile, atop is statue of angel, which is turning according to the wind direction. First church was probably built in 12. century. Before the first church church was built here, here was a Roman light house, showing direction to Koper. To the present size it was built in 14. century. Today’s church is a baroque church from early 17. century. Richly ornamented church has flat wooden ceiling. Interesting is wooden sculpture of St. George in a battle with dragon. Walk behind the church and admire a view to Strunjan, Debeli rtič and Trieste.
Walk down the stairs through narrow streets to Punta and 1. May Square.
- Punta is original core of the historic town. Narrow streets, rectangular network of streets are definitely worth of visit.
- 1. May square: until 13. century main square in the town. On the square are 2 wells, standing on a big platform from 18. century. They were built to solve the problem with public supply with water, after few drought. Two statues: law and justice. In middle ages on main squares executions were made.
The end of the peninsula you can reach by walking to the see and to the right from there or through narrow streets leading from the square towards north-west. Just before the church of St. Clement you pass Milje Gate, the town gate from 13. century, one of the oldest preserved gates in Piran.
- Cape Madonna, church of St. Clement together with medieval fortification and new-Gothic light house.
Ko izbiramo les za posamezne izdelke, moramo paziti, kakšne lastnosti pričakujemo od izdelka oz. kakšen bo namen in uporaba izdelka. Trdota lesa ni pomembna samo pri obdelavi lesa, temveč tudi pri njeni uporabi. Les po katerem hodimo ali režemo meso, bo moral biti seveda trši od tistega, na katerem stoji vaza. Les lahko v grobem glede na trdoto razdelimo takole:
koščeno trd: ebenovina, kokosova palma, dren
zelo trd: palisander, zelenika, hikori
trd: mahagoni, gaber, češnja, hruška, bukev, hrast
srednje trd: brest, oreh, kostanj
mehak: breza, vrba, jelša, macesen, črni topol
zelo mehak: divji kostanj, jelka, smreka, lipa, topol (Tavčar, 1967)