Češki Krumlov je eno najlepših mest v Evropi, z dobro ohranjenim zgodovinskim centrom, ki je bil leta 1992 uvrščen na seznam UNESCO-ve svetovne dediščine. Ime izhaja iz Krumben Ouwe, kar pomeni trata v obliki kljuke, kasneje se je ime toliko spremenilo, da smo dobili današnji Krumlov. Grad je drugi največji na Češkem, takoj za Praškim gradom ter prav tako dominanten na hribu nad reko Vltavo. Mesto je postalo zelo skomercializirano z velikim številom trgovin s steklom in porcelanom ter raznimi spominki in oblekami, bari in restavracijami, ki jih obiskujejo v glavnem avstrijski in nemški turisti.
Legenda pravi, da v srednjem veku na mestu, kjer je danes Krumlov ni bilo ne mesta niti gradu. Po dolini Vltave so bili samo temni gozdovi. V teh gozdovih so se skrivali roparji, imenovani Lotri. Oropali so vsakega trgovca, ki je iz Avstrije tod mimo prečkal proti notranjosti Češke. Nekega dne herojski vitez Vitek odkrije njihovo skrivališče in ga zažge. Na tem mestu so zgradili grad, da bo večno stražil pot ob Vltavi, v spomin na Lotre pa so poimenovali najdaljšo ulico v mestu, ki vodi iz starega dela mesta na drugo stran reke pod gradom. Poimenovana je Latran.
Zgodovinsko gledano pa začetek izgradnje gradu ob Vltavi sega v konec 13. stol. Tod mimo je vodila pomembna pot iz Avstrije v Bohemijo. V letu 1302 so postali lastniki gradu Rosenbergi. Pod njimi se je začel gospodarski razvoj mesta. Graditi so začeli nove cerkve, samostane in hiše. Nov zakon je dovoljeval izgradnjo novih trgov, odpiranje novih obrtniških delavnic ter trgovanje s sosednjimi mesti. To je trajalo do leta 1601, ko so morali posestvo prodati cesarju Rudolfu II. Habsburškemu. Cesar Rudolf II. ga je dal svojemu sinu. Med 1719 in 1945 je grad pripadal Schwarzenbergom. Večina arhitekture mesta in gradu je iz obdobja med 14. in 17. stol., večinoma gotika, renesansa in barok. Center mesta leži na zavoju Vltave, z manjšim delom (Latran) tudi na drugi strani reke pod gradom. Mesto je postalo del Avstrijskega imperija v 1806. Leta 1910 je imelo 8662 prebivalcev, od tega 7367 Nemcev in 1295 Čehov. Po 1. svetovni vojni v letih 1918 in 1919 je mesto pripadlo zgornji Avstriji, po tem ga zavzame češka vojska. Med 1938 in 1945 je bil priključen Nemčiji kot del Sudetov. Nemško govoreči del prebivalcev je bil po 2. svetovni vojni izgnan.
Po ulici Horni, kjer je bil v srednjem veku eden glavnih vhodov, pridemo na glavni trg. Na začetku ulice je bil dvižni most in mestna vrata na umetno zgrajenem rečnem kanalu, ki je bil prav tako namenjen obrambi mesta. Drugi pomemben vhod je bil skozi Budjeviška vrata v Latran. Takoj pri vhodu v mesto po ulici Horni je Regionalni muzej z zbirko ljudske umetnosti iz Šumave ter umetnostne obrti, arheološko zbirko, zgodovinsko zbirko, zbirko pohištva in zbirko orožja. Največja znamenitost muzeja je za sobo velik keramični model Krumlova, kot je bil leta 1800. Nekoliko nižje po ulici proti glavnemu trgu stoji Latinska šola – Jezuitski kolegij iz leta 1588, danes Hotel Ruže, za njim pa karedrala sv. Vita iz 14. stol. Katedrala ima baročno notranjost s freskami na severni ladji in grobnico Wiliama iz Rožmberka. Glavni trg v mestu je Trg svornosti z Marianskim stolpom, postavljenim v spomin na kugo, ki je prizadela mesto v letih 1680 do 1682, postavljen leta 1716. Nekatere hiše imajo bogate štuko dekoracije in prenekatere gotske oboke (Mestna hiša Radnice). Preko mosta pridemo v Latran. V tem delu mesta se na skali nad Vltavo bohoti največja znamenitost mesta, grad.
Skala nad Vlatavo je bila naseljena že davno preden je bil zgrajen najstarejši del gradu. Prvi gotski grad so tu zgradili pred 1250, točna letnica ni poznana. Prvi lastniki so bili Witigoni, družina iz Krumlova. ko je leta 1302 umrl zadnji dedič Witigonov, so grad podedovali njihovi sorodniki Roženberki. Roženberki so imeli sedež na gradu do leta 1602. Ime Rožnberkov in njihova tristoletna vladavina sta povezani z velikim razvojem mesta. Utrdbo so razširili v drugi največji grad v Bohemiji. V drugi polovici 16. stol. so grad preuredili v lepo renesančno rezidenco.
Leta 1602 je gospostvo Krumlova kupil cesar Rudolf II. Habsburški. Cesar Ferdinand II je kraljevo posestvo podaril Ulrichu iz Eggenberga, ki je bil predstavnik Avstrijske kraljeve dinastije. Eggenbergi so v 1680ih letih ponovno postavili mesto na noge, potem ko je bilo močno prizadeto zaradi 30 letne vojne. krumlov so obnovili v baročnem stilu. Potem ko so leta 1719 Eggenbergi izumrli, so Krumlov podedovali Schwarzenbergi. Tudi Schwarzenbergi so nadaljevali z gospodarskim in kulturnim razvojem gradu in mesta. Proti koncu 18. stol. in začetku 19. stol. je grad izgubil vlogo glavne rezidence Schwarzenbergov ter od takrat ni bil nikoli več stalno naseljen. Leta 1947 je posestvo Schwarzenbergov, tudi Krumlov, postalo last Češke, kasneje Češkoslovaške države.
1. Prvo dvorišče: Del originalno namenjen obrambi, takoj za fortifikacijo je bil kasneje predelan v kmečki in obrtniški del gradu (16. stol.). Glavni vhod na 1. dvorišče je skozi lesena Rdeča vrata (ime zaradi barve). Zgornji del vrat z grbom družine Schwarzenberg delno predstavlja originalna vrata iz 1861. Rekonstruirana v 1988. V 14. stol. je bilo obzidje dozidano s hišami.
- Takoj desno za Rdečimi vrati je Hiša soli originalno gotska. Od 1511 je bilo to skladišče za slad, kasneje skladišče za žito (konec 16. stol.) od 1723 pa skladišče soli.
Ljudje, ki so kasneje živeli v tej hiši, potem ko je bila predelana v stanovanjski objekt, marsikatero noč niso spali zaradi hrupa. Povzročala sta ga dva duhova, ki sta imela neporavnane medsebojne dolgova. Bila sta namreč čuvaja soli v času skladišča soli. Ker jima je bilo takrat velikokrat dogčas, sta se zapletala v kockarske dvoboje. Udarjala sta z rokami po mizi in glasno preklinjala. Nekega dne sta se na smrt sprla in se med sabo pobila. Od takrat se po hiši še vedno razširja ta hrup.
- Takoj levo za vrati je Lekarna z renesančno zgrafito fasado iz 1556. Zgradba iz 14. stol. Prej je bila to rezidenca dvornega zdravnika, lekarna pa je bila v hiši za skladiščem soli.
- Levo naprej od Nove lekarne je bil hlev, danes dvorana stebrov. V njem je bilo 50 konjev. Danes so v dvorani razstave.
- Naprej od hleva je bila hiša okrajne administracije.
- Vodnjak v parku je iz leta 1561. Park je bil verjetno prostor za živino.
- Kovačija stoji desno za Rdečimi vrati v vogalu. Na gradu sta bila včasih dva kovača.
- Pivovarna je bila v hiši naprej od kovača.
- Naprej od kovača, zadaj v vogalu je bila še bolnica (1561).
- Medvedji jarek na prehodu iz 1. na 2. dvorišče je bil del grajske fortifikacije. Medvede so začelli rediti v njem v 16. stol. vse do leta 1707.
Čez kamniti most, včasih lesen dvižni most, pridemo na 2. dvorišče. Okrašen je s kipi device Marije in sv. Janeza. Pod mostom je medvedji jarek, prvotno namenjen obrambi, kasneje za vzrejo medvedov. Prehod s Schwarzenbergovim grbom na vrhu vodi na 2. dvorišče.
2. Drugo dvorišče: Imenujejo ga tudi spodnji grad. Okoli njega dominirajo stanovanjske palače s stolpom imenovanim Mali grad (stavba pod grajskim stolpm), kateri je najstarejši del v grajskem kompleksu (2. polovica 13. stol). Okoli vhoda na 2. dvorišče stoji utrdba, ki je bila del grajske fortifikacije, zgrajena leta 1620. Na začetku 30. letne vojne so zgradili obzidje. Na vrhu utrdbe sta dva grba – levi od Josepha Adama Schwarzenberga in desni od njegove žene Marije Terezije von Lichtenstein. Kamniti most je leta 1647 nadomestil lesenega, v sredini 18, stol. sta bila dodana kipa.
- Grajski stolp: Najstarejši je JZ del. Severni del je že iz renesanse. V 1. nadstropju je koridor, ki gre preko Medvedjega jarka v Minoritski samostan. Stavba nad vhodom na 2. dvorišče je Nova hiša okrajne administracije.
- Hiša administracije je bila zgrajena leta 1578. Sedež grajske administracije, v kleti so bili zapori, danes je tam knjižnica s 40.000 deli klasične in znanstvene literature. V tej zgradbi je bila ena prvih kmetijskih šol v Bohemiji ustanovljena leta 1800. Danes je tu arhiv z dokumenti od 13. stol. do danes.
- Kovnica denarja najnovejša zgradba na dvorišču iz leta 1642. V njej je danes arhiv, v 1. nadstropju razstave.
- Med 2. in 3. dvoriščem je bil še en jarek. V gotiki je bil ta vhod zaprt. Vhod je bil skozi na novo zgrajen stolp, ki je bil s stopniščem in lesenim mostom povezan s palačo. Danes je ta stolp poznan kot Mlekarna, ki je v renesansi služila za izdelavo mlečnih izdelkov za potrebe grajske kuhinje. Lesen most je bil odstranjen v sredini 17. stol.
- Vodnjak na 2. dvorišču iz leta 1641.
3. Tretje in četrto dvorišče: Imenovan tudi Zgornji grad. Originalni center gotskega gradu, zgrajen na vrhu skale, iz ene strani zaščiten z reko Vltavo, iz druge pa s potokom Polečnico. V notranjosti gradu lahko vidimo razvoj zgradbe od 14. do 19. stol., kako so se menjali lastniki, arhitekturni stili in gradbena moda. Nekaj slikarij je ohranjenih. Prikazujejo planete, Jupiter in Sonce.
4. Peto dvorišče: Pokriti most povezuje 5. dvorišče in vrtove s 4. dvoriščem. Nenavadna in impresivna zgradba, 3 nadstropni pokriti koridor. Originalni srednjeveški dvižni most je bil nadomeščen s tem prehodom. Zgrajen je bil v štirih etapah med leti 1689 in 1765. Najnižje nadstropje gosti grajsko gledališče, povezovalni koridor v najvišjem nadstropju pa omogoča prehod na vrtove.
5. Vrt je bil zgrajen v 17. stol. Velik je 150×750 m, obsega približno 10.900 ha površine. Razdeljen na tri dele: prostor za jahanje, spodnji del s fontano in zgornji del 500 m dolg iz baroka. V njem se nahajajo:
- Šola jahanja
- Rastlinjak s pomarančami in Hiša ananasov
- Kaskadni vodnjak iz rokokoja
- Letno gledališče
- Ballarie, letna hiša iz 1708
- Glasbeni paviljon
From Adergas to Ljubljana
The last day we have been observing Kamnik-Savinja Alps from far. Today we continue our ride at the foot of them. At the beggining of today’s ride we see Devil’s Forest on the slope of Mt. Zaplata. The last day we have been observing Kamnik-Savinja Alps from far. Today we continue our ride at the foot of them. At the beggining of today’s ride we see Devil’s Forest on the slope of Mt. Zaplata. Legend has it that two brothers from the plains below Mt Zaplata were quarrelling over a forested plot of land near their farm when one of them bemoaned “to hell with it!” at which point the Devil himself picked up the forest and carried it on his back up the mountain. However, before he reached the top the day broke, causing him to lose his strength and drop the six hectare patch of forest where it still rests today.
First bigger town today is Kamnik. The first time it was mentioned as a town was in 1229, when it was an important trading post on the road between Ljubljana and Celje. This makes the town one of the oldest in Slovenia.The town was one of the the most influential centres of power of the Bavarian counts of Andechs in the region of Carniola at the time. The only remnant of the Bavarian nobility are the two ruined castles which are both strategically built on high ground near the town centre, one on the hill on the other side of the Kamniška Bistrica river and one practically in the town centre, on the lower hill above the main street.
In Kamnik Rudolf Maister was born. He is another notable Slovene. He was a Slovene military officer, poet and political activist. In 1918, near the end of the war when it was obvious that Austria-Hungary was losing, the city council of Maribor proclaimed the annexation of Maribor to Austria. Maister organized Slovene volunteer forces of 4000 soldiers and 200 officers and in the night of 23 November 1918 seized control of the city of Maribor and the surrounding region of Lower Styria. At the beginning of next year, to Maribor came American peace delegation, to see the ethnic structure in the city. Germans wanted this visit to turn to advantage and organized mass gathering. Data shows, that in Maribor at the time lived 80% of Germans. Lot of Germans joined the gathering. In shooting, that followed on Main Square, 13 Germans were killed by the army and 60 were wunded. Witnesses of the event dr. Maks Pohar, testified that the Austrians (some still in the uniforms of the pro-Austrian paramilitary organization called the Green Guard) attacked the Slovene soldiers guarding the city hall. He said, Austrian fired a revolver in the direction of the Slovenian soldiers, who responded spontaneously by firing into the civilian crowd. The event is known as Maribor Bloody Sunday.
We end the day and the tour in Ljubljana. Ljubljana, the capital of Slovenia, is a lively Central European city lying in a basin at the confluence of the Sava and Ljubljanica rivers, between the Alps and the Adriatic Sea, at 295 metres above sea level. It covers 273 square kilometres and has a population of about 300.000.
Ljubljana lies at the crossroads of important transport routes from Northern Europe to the Adriatic Sea, and from Western Europe to Eastern Europe, the Balkans and the Near East. Its geographical position overlaps with that of the so called Ljubljana Gateway, a one kilometre-wide natural passage between Central Europe and the Mediterranean leading through the very heart of the city, between the Golovec, Castle and Šišenski hrib hills. As Ljubljana is located in the immediate vicinity of both the Alps and the Adriatic Sea, a stay in the city allows you to enjoy skiing high in the mountains and swimming in the sea in a single day.
Legend has it that Ljubljana was founded by the Greek mythological hero Jason and his companions, the Argonauts, who had stolen the golden fleece from King Aetes and fled from him across the Black Sea and up the Danube, Sava and Ljubljanica rivers. They stopped at a large lake in the marsh near the source of the Ljubljanica, where they disassembled their ship to be able to carry it to the Adriatic Sea, put it together again, and return to Greece. The lake where they made a stop was the dwelling place of a monster. Jason fought the monster, defeated it and killed it. The monster, now referred to as the Ljubljana Dragon, found its place atop the castle tower on the Ljubljana coat of arms.
From Bled to Adergas
The village of Kropa, the cradle of Slovene iron-forging, lies in a narrow valley beneath the Jelovica Plateau. It is one of the most important Slovenia’s historic places due to its preserved architecture and technical heritage and has been protected as a cultural monument since 1953. It started to develop in the 14. century when the forest ironwork industry started to move from iron ore deposits on the Jelovica plateau towards the valleys and brooks.It has been established that over 100 different types of nails were for sale at home and abroad. In the 18. and the beginning of the 19. century, the time of the greatest production of the Kropa ironworks, there were also seven iron foundries in addition to two forges, that took care of producing semi-manufactured goods and 19 nail factories that jointly provided a living for a little over 1000 people. At the end of the 19. century, due to the crisis, competition from abroad and lack of ore, producers united into nail production cooperative. It later became the screw factory Plamen and artistic iron works UKO, which still operates today. The Iron Forging Museum in Kropa demonstrates the entire iron working process: from iron ore to a spike. It shows the economic, social and cultural conditions in Kropa and nearby ironworking location since the 15. century. The collection of nails has 94 types of preserved nails, from the smallest, used in shoemaking, to those that are 70cm long which were used in dam building. It is said, that even Venice is built by Kropa nails. Famous people from Kropa:
Dušan Petrač, physicist, works at Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, at NASA in Pasadena
Janez Potočnik, economist, commissioner in the EU
When you will ride up the hill from Kropa, remember the man, who won the 2012 Monte Carlo des enegies nouvelles. He lives and works in the village of Češnjica. Monte Carlo raly was 1380km long. On the first day the most important was crossing the finnish line in time, the volume of energy spent was not the issue. The second day the track was 430km long with 5000m of vertical climb and 480km with 2500m of vertical climb on the third day. If we translate the energy into the money: Andrej spent about 12 EUR to complete the race. How much energy spent the best in the rally Monte Carlo:
- place: Andrej Pečjak and Frederic Mlynarczyk (Dacia sandero); total spent energy 149,45 kWh
- place: James Morlaix and Sebastien Chol (Tesla roadster), total spent energy: 151,50 kWh
- place: Jean-Paul Oger and Benjamin Lardans (Tesla roadster S), total spent energy: 160,76 kWh
On the rally also took part a team in Ferrari 458 spider. For the same track they spent 154,10 l of fuel, what is 977,30 kWh of energy. They finished the race on 80. place.
Bitnje is a typical colonized village. Colonizers came from Bavaria in 12. and 13. century, in the times, when bishops of Freising (Bavaria) owned Škofja Loka and its land. They received a narrow and long stretch of land to work. At the time of arrival the land was completely forested. They had to chop the trees first and prepare the land for cultivation. The strethes were about 50m wide and 2km long. On one one side they were connected with a road, by the road was a house, barn and storrages. In base the ground plan stayed unchanged until today.
Škofja Loka, a thousand-year-old city at the confluence of the Poljanska Sora and Selška Sora rivers, was the center of the Loka dominion owned for 830 years by the Bishops of Freising, who placed an indelible stamp on the city. There is a Negro with a crown in all symbols of Loka, which relates to the legend about the land lord Abraham and his servant. The legend says that they were travelling along the Poljanska dolina valley and they met a big bear in dark woods. Bishop Abraham stopped, but the Negro drew a bow and shot the bear. Abraham had the head of the Negro pictured in the town coat-of-arms in order to thank the servant for having saved his life. The old city core boasts numerous points of interest from the past, and the Loka Castle, built before 1202, reigns above the city. Škofja Loka is considered the most beautifully preserved medieval city in Slovenia.
You can enter the old city crossing the Stone or Capuchin’s bridge. The bridge was built by bishop Leopold in the middle of the 14. century. The fate wanted that the same bishop, riding across the fenceless bridge, together with his startled horse fell from the bridge and got drowned in the water. The bridge was built from carved stone in the semicircular form. It was restored in the year 1888 and equipped with iron fence. In the middle of the bridge stands the statue of St. John of Nepomuk with the seal of Škoja Loka, already mentioned Negro.
The heart of the town is Town Square. There were all important buildings of the medieval town. Mainly the buildings have two stories, different coulours and three windows. If any building had four windows, the owner had to pay an extra tax for a forth window. On the stone fountain you can notice town’s seal again, the Negro. Lower Square or Lontrg runs parallel with Upper Square or Town Square. Lontrg was more like coountryside-looking square. There were farmers and craftsmen, who wanted to become middle class citizen. In groundflors were shops and workshops, in frst stories they lived. Groheč house still has an old outlook, from middle ages. It is the only one storey building built from wood.
There are another two important buildings in Škofja Loka: the castle and parish church of St. Jacob. The castle was mentioned for the first time in 1215. It housed the administrative seat of the vast feudal estate that encompassed the river basins of the Selca Sora and the Poljane Sora, and the plain of Sorško polje; the land belonged to the diocese of Freising, Bavaria, for as long as 830 years (973-1803).
The castle today houses the musum, which shows life in Škofja Loka and surrounding villages (cultural history, archeology, art history, natural science, ethnology, recent history,…).
The parish church of St. Jacob is a magnificent, late-Gothic, hall-like building that was erected in the 15th century on the foundations of a church at least 200 years older than the present one. In the past century, the interior of the church was renovated in accordance with the plans of the architect Jože Plečnik; chandeliers and a new baptistery were added at that time, too. The church tower, which bears the date 1532, is one of the features that makes the panoramic view of the town so distinctive.
The most important event in Škofja Loka is Passion play, which was recently brought back to town streets. If we look back in our history we can see that the play was written during the time when Slovenia was affected by a disastrous plague which killed a lot of people. Those who survived became very scared. They tried everything to stop this terrifying disease. They organized processions during Easter time when they performed the suffering of Jesus-Christ. These processions were proposed by the bishoph Tomaž Hren from Ljubljana who asked the Jesuits to organize them. The processions took place in the streets of Ljubljana. Behind them walked people who carried crosses or who flogged themselves. Many times the chief officer of a district of Škofja Loka Mr. Anton the noble Ecker suggested to organize a procession in the honour of the suffering of Jesus-Christ. In 1720 the Capuchin Romuald Marušič was elected in order to prepare everything that was necessary for the procession. At first he found volunteers from the city and farmers from the villages around and both valleys. Then he wrote the text and the play was performed in 1721. Later on the play was performed only twice; in 1727 and in 1728. After the Baroque period the Passion Play vanished for almost three centuries. It was renewed only in 1999 and 2000. It was a great success because about 53000 visitors came to see it. To run parallel with the Passion Play some visitors were offered special food and drink typical for the Baroque, others visited the monuments of Škofja Loka as well as those in the surroundings. There was an interruption of eight years after the year 2000. Then the authorities in Škofja Loka community decided to renew the Passion Play because they wanted it to become traditional. It will be possible to see it again this spring. It is worth to be seen because it has preserved all Medieval and Baroque elements that make Škofja Loka Passion Play unique and a very important European play. The latest Passion was performed in 2009 (800 actors, 80 horsemen, 24,000 spectators in 8 days) and will be re-staged again only in 2015.
Bohinj is a valley that stretches from Soteska to Ukanc. The entrance to the basin is very narrow. Turks and Napoleon with his army turned around and not tried to invade it. They thought, there is the end of the world. This narrow gorge strethes between forested Jelovica and Pokljuka high plateaus. At the narrowest place is place only for road, railway and Sava Bohinjka river. Bohinj basin is much wider. It is caught between Lower Bohinj Mountain Range on the south and Triglav on the north. The basin is dividen into two valleys: Upper and Lower valleys. Through Bohinj we make round tour. Through the Lower valley by the Sava Bohinjka river to the lake and back through the Upper valley. The Lower valley was traditionally more farming part of Bohinj, the Upper valley was more industrial. Stara Fužina and Bistrica were strong ironwork centres. That’s already a history. The last blast furnace was closed in the middle of 19. century and business moved to Jesenice.
Today one of the main sources for living of the locals is tourism. When God’s been distributing the world among his people, he wanted to leave this part of the world for himself. But when he saw last people standing in the row, and there was no other place to give them, he decided to give them this paradise, Bohinj. The paradise attract visitors from all over the world. Lake caught between high mountains, which rise above the lake for 1500m and more. Lake Bohinj is 4,2km long and 1km wide at its maximum width. It is a glacial lake dammed by a moraine. And it’s also the largest natural permanent lake in Slovenia. Its largest feeder is stream Savica flowing into the lake from the west side. The largest effluent is Jezernica, later Sava Bohinjka river. It is interesting, that outflow from Bohinj is larger that inflow. That means, that lot of water comes from underground springs.
Bohinj was also an important rear of Austrian army during Soča Front in World War 1. The railway through the valley, that was opened in 1906, was extended to Ukanc on the other side of the lake. From there all material, equipment and arms were transported on the backs of horses and mules. It is said, that a train engine is still in the lake, covered by mud. Nobody has found it yet.
Waterfall Savica is one of the most famous and popular waterfalls in Slovenia. It is where Krst pri Savici (The Baptism on the Savica), the masterpiece of France Prešeren, takes place. Official height is 78m. Water from the Black Lake sink 500m higher in the mountains and come through the underground channels to the waterfall. One part of the water sink in a tunnel again and come out as a 25m high waterfall, left part of the Savica waterfall.
Triglav National Park is the only national park in Slovenia. It stretches from Bled to the border with Italy and from Sava Dolinka river to Tolmin. It covers almost complete Slovenian part of Julian Alps, the area of 838 km2. Its highest point is Triglav with 2864m, the lowest is Tolminka river with 180m.
The first proposal for conservation dates from the year 1908, and was realised in 1924. Then, on the initiative taken by the Nature Protection Section of the Museological Society of Slovenia together with the Slovene Alpine Society, a twenty year lease was taken out on the Triglav Lakes Valley area, some 1400 hectares: It was destined to become an “Alpine Protection Park”, however permanent conservation was not possible, in 1961, after many years of effort, the protection was renewed this time on a permanent bases and somewhat enlarged, embracing some 2000 hectares. The protected area was officially designated as “The Triglav National Park”. Under this act, however, all objectives of a true national park were not attained and for this reason over the next two decades, new proposals for the extension and rearrangement of the protection were put forward. Finally, in 1981, a rearrangement was achieved and the park was given a new concept and enlarged to 838 square kilometres the area which it continues to cover to this day.
The park is named after Mt.Triglav (2864m), symbol of the Slovenia, which is situated almost in the middle of the protected territory. From it the valleys spread out radial, supplying water to two large river Systems which have their sources in the Julian Alps: the Soca river and the Sava river flowing to the Adriatic and Black Sea respectively.
In the past the narrow valleys of the Julian Alps did not offer favourable conditions for settlement. However traces of older settlements can be found, particularly in the Bovec basin, the Bohinj area and the Upper Sava river valley. The mountain way of life has given an indelible stamp to this mountainous region. A great part was played by cattle-breeding and very early on the inhabitants pastured their cattle in the mountains (the pastures on the slope of Krn were first mentioned in 1178), and established seasonal hamlets in the high mountain pastures. From very early times people were also engaged in producing iron, they found ore in the vicinity of their residences, smelted and then traded iron products. This economic activity reached its climax in the 15. and 16. centuries when the ironworks beside the rivers in the Trenta valley, in the Bohinj area and in the Jesenice basin were established. At the same time, the forests were thinned extensively to obtain charcoal from wood for the needs of the iron working industry. On account of a lack of ore and timber the ironworks of Trenta was closed in 1778, while obsolete technology and arrival of the railway, led to the closing of the ironworks of Bohinj in 1868.
A characteristic feature of the Slovene Alps was development of mountaineering. It is one of the oldest and most popular activities in the country which led to the foundation of the famous Slovene Alpine Society. This Society played a special role in the awakening of the Slovene national consciousness during the period of Austro-Hungarian rule. In these times there was a race between Slovenes, Austrians and Germans who will climb more and more difficult. It was the time when mountain huts begin to grow, when new mountain tracks have been marked and when new climbing route have been climbed. If you don’t climb Triglav at least once in your lifetime, you are not a Slovene. Today we have a network of 1661 mountain tracks in a total distance of about 9000km and 176 mountain huts, refuges bivouacs. Mountain tracks are well marked. If you have a proper map and you follow the yellow-red marks, you’ll hardly miss your way.
The biggest achievements in Slovenian mountaineering:
- Valentin Stanič is considered as the first Slovenian alpinist and one of the pioneers of European alpinism. In 1800 he climbed Grossglockner (the highest mountain of Austria) one day after the first ascenders and installed the summit cross. Few weeks later he climbed Watzmann (the second highest mountain in Germany) as the first ascender. In the year 1808 he climbed Triglav and measured his real hight.
- Firs documented climb to Triglav happened in 1778. Four Brave Men climb it from Bohinj.
- In 1975 Marjan Manfreda and Stane Belak as first Slovenes stood on the mountain highest than 8000m. Marjan climbed it with no additional oxygen as the first man in the world.
- First climb to Mt. Everest was in 1979.
- In 1998 Tomaž Humar performed 3. solo climb (or 1. solo by non American) of the route Reticent Wall (marked A4-A5) in El Capitan (Yosemite)
- In 2000 Davo Krničar became the first man in the world, who successfully made an interrupted descent on skies from the top of Mt. Everest to the base camp on 5350m
- In 2005 Tomaž Humar attempt to solo climb Rupal Face of Nanga Parbat. At about 7000m of hight he was stopped by bad weather and rescued by the famous helicopter action of the Pakistani air forces.
From Podkoren to Bled
Today we pass towns, that are home towns of some world famous Slovenes, to you probably mainly unknown, but some you might know. Mainly they are athletes. First we pass Mojstrana. From Mojstrana are Jure Košir, Alenka Dovžan and Martina Čufar. Jure Košir and Alenka Dovžan are former alpine skiers. Jure won 3 gold medals and additional 20 top 3 podiums, 18 of them at slalom. That’s all Italian Alberto Tomba let him to win (they were rivals almost all his career). Rock climber Martina Čufar stood 32. times on the podium in international competition and was once champion and once vice champion. Her the most difficult ascents are graded 8c in French grading or about 5.14b in Yosemite Decimal System. In the village close to Mojstrana lived and worked Jakob Aljaž, priest, poet and mountaineer. He became known by having built mountain huts around Triglav, which fostered the development of mountaineering in Slovenian Lands. His by far the most known constructions are Aljaž Tower built on the summit of Mt. Triglav and Aljaž Hut in Vrata Valley at the foot of it.
Hrušica is home town of Anže Kopitar – Kopi, Slovene professional hockey player, the first Slovene hockey player in NHL and 2012 Stanley Cup winner. He started his career playing for Acroni Jesenice. Jesenice is famous after at least two things: just mentioned hockey club and steel industry. Small streams on the slopes of the Karawanks were no longer sufficient. The ore-extracting industry moved to the valley to a larger water source Sava river in 1538 and creating a settlement that was to become Jesenice. In the golden years of iron production in Jesenice iron-works stretched through almost complete town.
From Jesenice was the world’s toughest and craziest athlete, endurance cyclist Jure Robič. Robič won the Race Across America (RAAM) 5 times (a record in the men’s solo category): in 2004, 2005, 2007, 2008 and 2010. He was in second place at the final time station in 2009 when he dropped out to protest time penalties he had received. Robič swore never to enter RAAM again, but changed his mind and came back and won again in 2010. During the 2004 Race Across America, it was reported that he had only eight hours of sleep during his eight-day, 2,958.5-mile (4,761.2km) ride across the United States. On 19 September 2004, Robič broke the world 24-hour road record by cycling 834.77 km (518.70mi).
Anton Janša was educated as a painter, but was employed as a teacher of apiculture at the Habsburg court in Vienna. He became famous for his lectures in which he demonstrated his knowledge of bees. He also wrote two books in German: Discussion on Bee-keeping (1771) and A Full guide to Bee-keeping (1775). In his Full guide he noted: Bees are a type of fly, hardworking, created by God to provide man with all needed honey and wax. Amongst all God’s beings there are none so hard working and useful to man with so little attention needed for its keep as the bee. The Empress Maria Theresa issued a decree after Janša’s death obliging all teachers of apiculture to use his books. In bee-keeping he is noted for changing the size and shape of hives to a form where they can be stacked together like blocks. As a painter he also decorated the fronts of hives with paintings. He advocated moving hives to pastures. Janša’s beehive in Breznica was preserved by Slovene bee-keepers and in 1884 a plaque was put on the house where he was born. The Museum of Apiculture in Radovljica is also named after him.
About 1km of our way is village Vrba, where our poet France Prešeren was born. In 1945, the anniversary of his death, called Prešeren Day, was declared as the Slovenian cultural holiday. In 1989, his Zdravljica (A toast) was declared the national anthem of Slovenia. In 1992, his effigy was portrayed on the Slovenian 1000 tolar banknote, and since 2007, his image is on the Slovenian two-euro coin.
Begunje is a home of the most successful music band in Slovenia, folk music group Ansambel bratov Avsenik (Brothers Avsenik Ensemble). They sold 31 mio records, they also have the world record in uninterrupted playing music – more than 300 evenings in the row. Brother Avsenik are also the most times played European compositors. Their composition Na Golici is the most times played instrumental composition in the world in 20. century. Just for comparison: Bruce Springsteen sold 120 mio albums; Depeche Mode, Green Day, Beyonce, Aretha Franklin sold 75 mio.
During the time of Nazi occupation Katzenstein Castle served as a Gestapo prison. In the years from 1941 to 1945, a total of 11.477 prisoners were interned, mostly followers of the resistance movement from Gorenjska region, as well as from other Slovenian regions. The former prison in the castle houses Museum of Hostages. In the park and nearby Draga valley are 667 burial sights of hostages and partisans.
In Begunje is also Elan factory and its shop. Elan is Slovenian ski producer with long history and many successes, achievements and awards. Their invention is also carving or sidecut ski. First real carving ski was SCX ski (Sidecut Extreme) and first descent on the race was made by Swedish skier Ingemar Stenmark in Austrian Sölden in 1988. They were 203cm long. After that slalom it took 10 years this skies to be used in racing competitions. In the USA (and to the world) the carving revolution (shaped or parabolic ski, as it was then called) was introduced in the season 1994-1995 for the first time. The engine of promotion was Bill Irwin. He was the one who, after testing the skies, believed to the success of the skies. The start was not easy. Elan was just a small player on the huge market of this industry and with 7% of market share they couldn’t turn the trend. It’s interesting, that nobody noticed the potential of this change, until Rossignol presented his carving skies. In three years only (between 1995 and 1998) the number of skies sold increased from 18.000 to 210.000 pairs. But recently, they presented another innovation or revolution in skiing: Amphibio. Basically, these left and right skis have inside edges with a traditional camber (which result in excellent edge grip and power transfer), while the outside edges have a slightly rockered design, allowing easier turn initiation and flotation. Earlier previous decade, Elan introduced the concept of an all-in-one ski-binding system and, five years ago, the benefits of WaveFlex technology. (Think softer flex with torsional stability through the concept of corrugated strength.) Elan’s WaveFlex technology has been incorporated into all models of the Amphibio line.
Radovljica is medieval town, built on the glacial terrace above Sava river. The old part of the town forms main Linhart square with one row of mainly Gothic buildings on each side and on places preserved town wall. The square is named after Anton Tomaž Linhart, Carniolain playwright and historian. He is the author of the first comedy and theatrical play in Slovene, Županova Micka (Micka, the Mayor’s Daughter) and writer of a history of all Slovenes as a unit, rejecting the previous concept which focused on single historical provinces. The most prominent building on the square is Baroque Mansion house. The mansion today houses Beekepers Museum and Radovljica Municipal Museum.
On the main square you can also find restaurant Lectar. It is located in a house with more than 500 years of history and is in business for over 180 years. It was opened on the premises of an old chandlery and bakery known mostly for its lect or gingerbread hearts. This is how the restaurant got its name and trademark. Lectarstvo (producing gingerbread hearts) is an old and renowned traditional handicraft of Slovenia. The decorated pastry is made from honey dough and shaped either with a wooden or tin mould, or by hand. During the Middle Ages, lect was popular with social elite in cities and squares, while in the countryside lect workshops appeared in the 19. century. In those times, these products were highly regarded as meaningful tokens of love. The oldest preserved wooden mould dates back to the 16. century. Today, honey-bread products are precious souvenirs from Slovenia.
Lesce is a home town of another three around the world known persons. The first one is Iztok Čop, a Slovenian rower, winner of many medals from the most important world class races, an Olympic gold medallist and one of the best Slovenian athletes. The second one is Franci Petek, former ski jumper, winner of gold medal in the individual large hill. The third one is me.
Lake with an island and a church on it, castle raising above and a backdrop of high mountains and forests. That’s Bled. Due to it’s natural beauties it became one of the most popular resorts in Slovenia. Everything started in the middle of 19. century, when a Swiss doctor, Arnold Rikli, found the lake, when searching for the most appropriate place for perfect healing effect of the natural environment. Rikli proposed various therapies, mostly based on exposing the body to sun and air, called sun tanning, preferably done while naked. He is one of the forefathers of a movement called naturism today. The lake is just enough long, that rowing competitions can be organized there. Bled was a host to the World Rowing Championship already four times, in 1966, 1979, 1989 and 2011. Bled has three symbols and you should go for all three of them. The recipe for Cream cake was brought to the local Hotel Park in 1953 by Ištvan Kovačevič, chef of the hotel’s confectionery store. So far about 12 million cream cakes have been baked at the hotel’s patisserie since its invention. Main ingredients are puff pastry, vanilla and custard (a variety of culinary preparations based on a cooked mixture of milk or cream and egg yolk) cream. Traditional wooden horse carriage can take you for a ride around the lake or to the surrounding villages. And also wooden pletna boat can take you to the island.
As you might read somewhere, the lake is of glacial origin. Well, that’s not so. The true story goes like this: There, where today the lake is, a long time ago was no water, but a valley with small hill and huge rock atop. At a moonlight, mountain fairies gathered and danced. In the green valley and steep slopes of the hill, shepherds herded sheep. Sheep grazed all the grass, which grew around the rock. One day fairies got angry and threatened to shepherd-boys: „Make a fence around the rock, or we will.“ Shepherd-boys just laughed and continued taking cattle to pasture. Sheep grazed all the grass and one night the youngest and the prettiest made broke leg on a hard ground. Fairies revenged on boys for broken leg, call water to run down from the hills above to the valley and encircle the rock on the hill, so just the rock was above the water. That’s how fairies fenced the rock on the hill to dance undisturbed in the moonlight.
Zelenci is as natural park protected swamp with small emerald green lake 1.200m long and 200m wide. Source of Sava Dolinka river. Natural park is a living space of many rare and endangered animal species and plants. Area around Kranjska gora is the result of work of Planica glacier, once stretching from beneath Mt. Jalovec, Mt. Ponce and Mt. Mojstrovka. Zelenci is a remnant of once much larger Koren lake, damed by a debris of the glacier and filled by the water of melting glacier. Sava river after made its way through this dam, lowering the water level until only Zelenci and wetland around were left. Zelenci is considered the beginning and the second source of the longer of the two sources of the Sava, the longest Slovenian river at 221 km. Unique in Slovenia is that the porous chalk of the Zelenci lakebed permits a constant upwelling of groundwater in the form of tiny jets. The lake water has constant year-round temperature of 5–6 °C. From the lake, the water flows into a stream, which empties eastward into the marshland “Blata” (“Muds”). The actual riverbed of the Sava Dolinka begins at Podkoren by the slopes of Vitranc.
Planica is glacial U-shaped 7km long valley. Around 2.300m high mountains and ridges rise above the valley. In the middle part of the valley, under Ponce mountains are ski-jumping hills. Today there is a large construction site, new nordic centre with a hotel, cross-country skiing tracks and ski-jumping hills will be finished in the following years. Planica finishes with Tamar. Nadiža waterfall is first source of Sava Dolinka river. Soon after it goes undergraund and at Zelenci comes to light again.
History of ski-jumping in Slovenina officially starts with the first championship and record in 1921 in Bohinj with 9m long jump. Just before 1930 in Planica first jumping hill was built. This one was not built according to FIS standards. Soon after at Winter Sports Association came to idea to build a ski jump that will be built according to FIS standards. They were thinking about a ski jump, where would be possible to jump at least 100m. Bloudek ski jump was finished in 1934 and opened with national championship. New record was 92m. The firs man, jumped over 100m (101m) was Austrian Sepp Bradl in 1936. In 1950s higher ski jumps were built in Kulm and Oberstdorf. To bring an old glory back to Planica, new ski jump had to be built. Brothers Gorišek made all the projects for new flying hill, it was finished in 1969. In 1994 Toni Nieminen, Finland was the first man fly over 200m (203m). The longest jump in Planica is from 2005, Norvegian Bjorn Einar Romoren flew 239m. Present world record from 2011 is held by Norvegian Johan Remen Evensen, who jumped 246,5m). The longest jump in Planica is from 2005, Norvegian Bjorn Einar Romoren flew 239m. Present world record from 2011 is held by Norvegian Johan Remen Evensen, who in Vikersund jumped 246,5m. Slovenes too have a large collection of great results in the sport, gaining their first olympic medal (a team bronze) in 2002 in Salt Lake City. Slovene record holder is Robert Kranjec, who jumped 244m in 2012 in Vikersund.
In winter brave men on skis fly over this flying hill, in summer other and sometimes also the same brave men and women run up. Extreme race called Red Bull 400 is organized here. 400 means that the track is only 400m long, but you climb almost 200m. The fastest runners need about 5 minutes and 10 seconds to climb to the top. Using of your hands is almost necessary to finish the race.
The two Fusine Lakes in the Natural Park of Fusine lie in a glacial basin within the majestic limestone amphitheatre built by the Picco di Mezzodì, Mount Mangart and Ponza Grande. The Fusine Lakes are maybe among the most beautiful stretches of water in the region. The two lakes are divided by morainic ridges and are supplied by an unusual water system, partly underground. The Higher Lake is supplied by various streams coming down from the surrounding mountains. It lies 5 meters above the Lower Lake and its water slowly flows into the lower reservoir via underground waterways. The Lower Lake supplies the Rio del Lago, the only effluent of both lakes. A peculiarity of this area is the presence of many erratic blocks (huge rocks which have been moved by glaciers far away from their place of origin); the volume of the biggest one, Rock Pirona or Rodelffels, slightly exceeds 30,000 cubic metres. The lakes are surrounded by large forests of Norway spruce (some of them older than 150 years), silver fir and beech, inhabited by deer and roe deer, while chamois and ibexes live in the higher areas. In winter the valley Fusine, which is one of the coldest places in Italy, is crossed by two cross-country ski tracks.
Kranjska gora is the largest settlement in Upper Sava Valley and is due to ski jumping world cup and championship in Planica and Pokal Vitranc, world cup in slalom and giant slalom, most famous for its winter sports but is the heart of the valley in summer too.
Winters are long and cold with lot of snow, what old village people can tell us:
- the winter (from November to March) with the thickest snow cover was in the years 1869-70, together fell around 7m of snow
- at one time the most snow fell on 15.3.1909, 2,5m
The village started to develop only in 14. century. Due to harsh winters cultivation of land was limited and it was not suitable for cereals growing. At that time people started with deforestation of land mostly for stockbreeding. In 1870 the railway Ljubljana – Rateče – Tarvisio was opened and closed in 1966 (31.3. the last train). During the World War 1, Kranjska gora became important transportation hub in Austrian rear. Over the mountain pass Vršič (1611m) new road and cable car were built. Military used them for transportation of arms, military equipment and soldiers to the Soča front. Russian soldiers (prisoners of war) built Russian chapel for their deceased colleagues and friends, which died during the construction work and mainly die because of hard winter working conditions and snow slides. Tourism started to develop in the beginning of 20. century. In 1904 the first hotel in Kranjska gora – hotel Razor was built. Today you can enjoy various activities in the nature: hiking and trekking, cycling and mountainbiking, golf, horse riding, rock climbing, fishing, programs for children (Kekec home), summer sledding, alpine skiing, cross country skiing, ski touring, ice climbing, ski doo riding,…
But Kranjska gora also has old heart of the village, where people in 1848, when village got trading rights, traded their goods. On the square stands main church in Kranjska gora, church of Assumption from 1510. Close to the centre by the main street stands Liznjek house (prototype of traditional house which were built unchanged to 19. century), once owned by the richest landowner of the village. It is wooden house built in 17. century, small stone house standing by is from 18. century.
Slovenia has a long history of skiing. Slovenes are skiing nation and I can say, that almost every Slovene stood on the skies at least once in his lifetime.
The oldest information about skiing is based on archaeological evidence. A wooden ski dating from about 6300 to 5000 BC was found about 1200km northeast of Moscow at Lake Sindor. The Kalvträskskidan ski, found in Sweden dates to 3300 BC, and the Vefsn Nordland ski, found in Norway is dated to 3200 BC. Rock drawings in Norway dated to 4000 BC depict a man on skis holding a stick. Norwegians were ambassadors of skiing and skies. Also the word ski comes from Old Norse word “skíð” which means stick of wood or ski. At the beginning skies were used as a mean of transport. Norwegian immigrants used skis in the US midwest from around 1836. Norwegian immigrant “Snowshoe Thompson” transported mail by skiing across the Sierra Nevada between California and Nevada from 1856. In 1888 Norwegian explorer Fridtjof Nansen and his team crossed the Greenland icecap on skis. Norwegian workers on the Buenos Aires – Valparaiso railway line introduced skiing in South America around 1890. In 1910 Roald Amundsen used skis on his South Pole Expedition. In 1902 the Norwegian consul in Kobe imported ski equipment and introduced skiing to the Japanese, motivated by the death of Japanese soldiers during snow storm.
Skiing as a sport developed only in 18. century. The first recorded organized skiing exercises and races are from military uses of skis in Norwegian and Swedish infantries.
First Slovenian skiers already existed as early as the 16. and 17. centuries. As a legend says, traditional Slovenian downhill skiing was born in the region of the Bloke plateau, a semi-forestall hilly land placed south-west of Ljubljana. Bloke skier is considered as a “prototype” skier of Slovenian modern skiing. Baron Janez Vajkard Valvasor (1641-1693) wrote precise reports on skiing activities in Slovenia. The skiing of Carniolan peasants was described in 1689 in the book Die Ehre Deß erzogthums Crain (The Glory of the Duchy of Carniola). Baron Janez Vajkart Valvazor was a nobleman, scholar, polymath, and member of the London Royal Society. Valvasor’s book is a description of Carniolan geography, nature, history, customs, and language.
Big boom of Slovenian skiing happened in 1980s with growing of international successes of Slovenian skiers. Alpine skiers, such as Bojan Križaj, Mateja Svet, Boris Strel, Rok Petrovič, Jure Franko and Nataša Bokal were the athletes who, by winning several World Ski Cup podiums and victories, small crystal globes for the season’s best runner in a particular ski discipline, World Championships podiums or titles and Olympic medals, materialized the myth of skiing as the Slovenian national sport. Bojan Križaj was the beginner of the successful Slovenian skiing story and one of the greatest legends of Slovenian skiing who was one of the greatest rivals of the legendary and almost unbeatable Swedish skier Ingemar Stenmark. In female world of skiing Mateja Svet was Slovenia’s most successful female alpine skier by far. As one of the world’s best female skiers, she was one of the greatest opponents of Swiss skier Vreni Schneider. Slovenian skiing fairy tale is still not ended. Just last season 2012-13 was all-time best season of Slovenian skiing. Tina Maze becomes one of the alpine skiing legends with a record breaking 2414 points in World cup season. She reaches the podium 24 times and in the meanwhile in Schaldming becomes Super-G champion in wins silver medals in giant slalom and super combined.