Archive for July, 2014

Otroška postelja

Preden se lotimo izdelave katerekoli postelje, moramo vedeti dimenzijo posteljnega vložka ali vzmetnice. Mi smo se odločili za nekoliko večjo otroško posteljo. Torej za posteljo dimenzije 70×160 cm. Vso opremo za to posteljo lahko kupite v trgovinah Ikea. Postelja je narejena iz smrekovega lesa, lakirana z vodnim lakom.

Za izdelavo postelje potrebujemo naslednje elemente (debelinaxširinaxdolžina v mm):

  • noga postelje; 40x70x570; 4 kos
  • spodnji prečnik prečne stranice; 20x120x630; 2 kos
  • zgornji prečnik prečne stranice; 20x40x630; 2 kos
  • pokončniki prečne in vzdolžne stranice; 15x40x270; 19 kos
  • pokončniki prečne in vzdolžne stranice; 20x40x270; 6 kos
  • vzdolžna stranica; 20x120x1610; 2 kos
  • vzdolžna stranica; 20x40x1610; 1 kos
  • nosilna letev dna postelje; 35x35x1500 mm; 2 kos

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Vsi robovi pokončnikov ter po dva robova zgornjih prečnikov in vzdolžnikov so zaokoroženi, v našem primeru r=6 mm.

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Potem, ko imamo vse elemente pripravljene, torej poskoblane, robove zaokrožene ter zbrušene, začnemo s stestavljanjem. Najprej sestavimo “lestve”, stranice postelje. Glede na to, da je širina stranice 770 oz. 1610 mm in da je širina letvice 40 mm, naredimo razmak med letvicami 78 (pri krajši stranici) oz. 91 (pri daljši stranici) mm. Spoji so mozničeni.

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Na koncu vse štiri elemente še sestavimo tako, da dobimo notranjo dimenijo postelje 710×1610 mm. Vogalni spoj naredimo s prečno matico. Z lesnimi vijaki pritrdimo še nosilce dna postelje. Dno postelje pritrdimo na višino, katera je odvisna od debeline vzmetnice in željeno višino postelje.

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Postelja Lina

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Ljubljanica river and three bridges in Ljubljana

The Ljubljanica river, which is also called The River of Seven Names, is the lower reaches of a karst river which on its way towards Ljubljana disappears underground a number of times and springs again at different places, every time under a different name. Spring in near Vrhnika. Ten kilometres to the north-east of Ljubljana city centre it empties itself into the Sava river. Until the railway became a commonly used means of transportation in the middle of the 19. century, it was the main route for carrying goods to and from Ljubljana. The main quay was located at the present Breg embankment.

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Ljubljana is a city of many beautiful and interesting bridges. It is believed that the first bridge across the Ljubljanica river was built back in Roman times, most probably somewhere between the present Cobblers’ Bridge (Čevljarski most) and Šentjakob Bridge (Šentjakobski most). The medieval Ljubljana boasted two wooden bridges, an old bridge located at the site of the present Triple Bridge (Tromostovje) and the Butchers’ Bridge (Mesarski most), which was located at the site of the present Cobblers’ Bridge. At the end of the 18th century, when the city walls were pulled down, the danger of floods was reduced with the building of the Gruber Canal (Grubarjev prekop) in 1783, and the city expanded to the left bank of the Ljubljanica river, a number of new wooden bridges were built and later replaced by metal, stone or concrete ones.

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The Ljubljanica river often flooded until the course of the river was thoroughly improved in the first half of the 20. century. The riverbed tried to be regulated already in 16. century and before, but with no success. Bigger works started already in middle 19. century. In 1912 they deepened the river bed. Later they deepened Gruber channel as well. But this was still not the solution to the problem. Today’s tamed Ljubljanica river and its attractive concrete embankments owe much of their appearance to architect Jože Plečnik. He redesigned the embankments with tree-lined walks including the romantic multi-level willow-lined walk running along the length of the Trnovski pristan embankment, and designed or redesigned a range of bridges on the Ljubljanica river and its tributaries, including the Trnovo Bridge (Trnovski most), the Cobblers’ Bridge and the centrally located Triple Bridge, which considerably contribute to the city’s unique character.

The row of houses on right bank of the river still has balconies, that over 100 years ago had all houses on the bank. They were made from wood and were big threat for the fire in the town. On this side were also toilets, all dirt they throw on the bank, so because of that the bad smell spreaded all around. Citizens started to complain (because of fire danger and smell), but no success. All they achieve was, that inhabitants of those houses had to arrange the toilets in the house. The dirt has to be leaded directly into the river. Today those balconies are not wooden any more.

The oldest bridge in Ljubljana was on a place of today’s Cobbler’s bridge. It was called Upper bridge (Zgornji most), Butcher’s bridge (Mesarski most), because the butchers have their shops on or Šuštar bridge (Šuštarski most). It was also named Upper bridge, while Špital bridge was Lower bridge. Špital bridge was usually used by traders and foreign cargo carriers, while locals used Butcher’s bridge. The site of the present Cobblers’ Bridge (Čevljarski most), which was built by architect Jože Plečnik between 1931 and 1932, was formerly occupied by a covered wooden bridge, which connected the two main parts of medieval Ljubljana, namely the Mestni trg square (Town Square) and the Novi trg square (New Square). The bridge provided space for cobblers’ workshops, after whom it was named. Its main attraction was the statue of Christ at its south end, which now stands in the Church of St. Florian (Cerkev sv. Floriana). The 19. century saw the building of a new, cast iron bridge, which was on the initiative of architect Plečnik moved to the site opposite the Ljubljana Maternity Hospital to connect the Zaloška cesta and the Poljanska cesta roads.

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The present Cobblers’ Bridge (built in 1931 – 1932) was, like architect Plečnik’s Trnovo Bridge (Trnovski most), conceived as a broad balustraded platform connecting two different parts of the city. Like the Triple Bridge (Tromostovje) it was made of artificial stone. Its characteristic appearance is due to its balustrades with short balusters and tall, different sized pillars topped with stone balls. The central two pillars support lamps and are slightly shorter, which gives the bridge an original and dynamic appearance. The bridge platform is on the sides decorated with a geometric pattern. The balustrades were renovated in 1991.

The present Dragon Bridge (Zmajski most) across the Ljubljanica river was built to replace the former wooden bridge called the Butchers’ Bridge (Mesarski most), which was built in 1819. For reasons of economy, the Municipality of Ljubljana, who financed the building of the bridge, decided on a reinforced concrete construction, which was less expensive and more modern than stone constructions.

Built in the years 1900 to 1901 under the name of Jubilee Bridge (Jubilejni most), Dragon Bridge was Slovenia’s first bridge with an asphalt paving. It is one of Ljubljana’s most representative examples of Art Nouveau architecture, the city’s first reinforced concrete bridge, and one of the first bridges of the kind in Europe. It was constructed by Professor Josef Melan, a famous engineer specializing in reinforced concrete bridge engineering and the father of the theory for large arched bridges statics calculations.

The Art Nouveau appearance of the bridge is due to the Dalmatian architect Jurij Zaninović, who studied under Professor Otto Wagner. He designed the decorative concrete covering, the balustrades and the sheet-copper dragon statues, which became the symbol of Ljubljana. The original designs envisaged winged lions instead of dragons. The bridge lamps, which used to be fuelled by gas, are part of the original decoration.

It was built to remembrance to Austro-Hungarian emperor Franc Josef  what it can be seen from year on the bridge 1848 – 1888.

Špital bridge (Lower bridge) was second built bridge in Ljubljana. In 1280 was mentioned for the first time as Old bridge. It was rebuilt many times. Later in middle ages were on the bridge butchers’ stands, later, on one built in baroque time there were already wooden hovels (kolibe). In those hovels manufacturers were selling their products. With removing the old wooden bridge in 1842, all hovels were removed. Some manufacturers found the place for selling the products in Čopova street. New, stony bridge was named after archduke Franz Karl.

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The central of the present three bridges forming the Triple Bridge (Tromostovje) has stood in its place since 1842, when it replaced an old, strategically important medieval wooden bridge, which used to be a transit route between the countries of the North-western Europe and the South-eastern Europe including the Balkans. The Triple Bridge as a unique architectural speciality of Ljubljana was created when between the years 1929 and 1932 two more bridges, intended for pedestrians, were added to the original stone bridge by architect Jože Plečnik.

Plečnik removed the metal balustrades from the old stone bridge and furnished all the three bridges with massive stone balustrades and lamps. From each of the side bridges two stairways lead to the terraces situated just above the river, where poplar trees were planted to contribute to the overall appearance of the bridge.

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On the right bank of the river, the bridge is enhanced by a small flower shop sited at the end of the Ljubljana Central Market colonnade, and on the right bank by a kiosk. Positioned on the crossing of the river axis and the axis running between the Rožnik hill and the Castle Hill, the Triple Bridge is the key point on Plečnik’s urban axes. In 1992, the Triple Bridge was thoroughly renovated.

Pohorje

If there wouldn’t be peaks as Velika Kopa (1.542 m), Ribniški vrh (1.537 m), Črni vrh (1.543 m) and Rogla (1.517 m), Pohorje would be 1.200 metres high plateau. But with the peaks Pohorje is a mountain range. Also at the top of it you can find lot of small streams and brooks. But not only water rumbling down the hill, but also water caught atop. Lovrenška jezera (Lovrenc lakes) is a group of about 20 lakes, which are not true lakes. They are true high peat swampland about 8.000 years old (Lovrenc).

Starting from Rogla, the way is more or less flat, but if you continue to Ribniška koča (Ribnica hut) you need to go across about 200 metres higher peak Ribniški vrh. Big part of the way you walk in the shade of the forest but you can warm up crossing wide meadows. From Rogla to Ribniška koča about 3 hours are needed (1 hour to the Lovrenc lakes).

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Lakes of Austria and Slovenia (part 3)

From Lake Ossiach to Lake Faak

Already from Ossiach lake you can see Landskron castle situated atop of a hill rising 135 metres above the plain. Actually as we ride towards Villach, we get really close to it. In 1351 it was mentioned in the documents for the first time. In the castle you can enjoy the Eagle show. All free flying birds were not taken from the nature, but they all originate from their own breeding program.

Landskron Castle

Landskron Castle

The highlight of the day is definitely old part of Villach (in Slovene Beljak). We enter the city taking the Drau river cycling path. Drau river cycling path starts at source of Drau river in Italy and it follows the river all the way to Maribor in Slovenia (366 kilometres). Villach is the second largest town in Carinthia. There was already a bridge and fortified camp here in Roman times. In 1007 the town passed into the control of the Bishops of Bamberg. Maria Theresa purchased it from the bishops in 1759 and it than became part of Austria. Villach is today one of the most important road and railway junctions in the Eastern Alps. Long Hauptplatz or Main Square, cutting across the middle of the old town, links the main bridge over the Drau at its northern and with the parish church at its southern end. Parish church of St. Jacob, on a terrace above the end of the square, is a three aisled Gothic hall church from 14. century with a narrow choir and 95 metres high tower with a splendid view to the city and surrounding mountains. Villach was a home town of  Theophrastus Bombast von Hohenheim, known as Paracelsus (1493-1541, born in Switzerland). He lived here from his early years. When he was 9 he moved to Villach with his father, who worked here as a doctor. Paracelsus was eminent physician, philosopher and religious thinker. He pioneered the use of chemicals and minerals in medicine. Humans must have certain balances of minerals in their bodies, and that certain illnesses of the body had chemicals remedies that could cure them. He also said, that all things are poison, and nothing is without poison; only the dose permits something not to be poisonous. Or simply, the dose makes the poison. 3 kilometres from the town in the southern outskirts lies spa of Warmbad Villach. The radioactive mineral springs, which have between 28 and 30°C, are recommended for the treatment of rheumatism, circulatory disorders and nervous diseases.

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Finish of the stage of the Race Across Slovenia in Villach

 

Lake Faak (in German Faak See ; in Slovene Baško jezero) is an alpine lake of glacial origin. With surface of about 2,2 square kilometres and maximal depth of nearly 30 metres is the state’s fifth largest lake and Austria’s southernmost swimming lake. Lake Faak is a popular vacation and bathing destination, known for its clear turquoise water. In spite of all that, Lake Faak is a site of the European Bike Week, honouring the legendary wild and loud Harley-Davidson motorcycles.  Five days and nights, 100.000 people celebrate the grand final of the European motorcycle season.

Lake Faak

Lake Faak

The story of Habsburgs starts in present Switzerland. They had the estates by the Ren river, in Alsace and by the Boden lake. Their name derives from Habichtsburg (Vulturish castle). Rudolf I. was the first from the family on the German throne. For almost 700 years they had an important role in European history. One of the most important names was Maria Theresa. She promulgated number of reforms mainly the administration to be more effective and  to collect more taxes. School children will never forget her. Every child aged between 6 and 12 had to learn to write, read and count. And we all will never forget her for her description of souls and house numbers. She and later her son Joseph II. wanted to know how many men, women and children live in the empire, how many of them is liable for military service, who has workshop or factory, who is farmer, owner or their employee. For better control they equipped every house with a number, house number. It was in Tyrol and Vorarlberg that the first house numbers in the Habsburg Monarchy were introduced in 1767. Within a few years the system had been extended to all the Austrian and Bohemian territories. The reasons for numbering houses had to do with taxation and the army: together with the census the system made it simpler to track down those who were liable for military service. Houses with Jewish residents had to be numbered in a special way, namely by using Roman and not Arabic numerals. This is just a short list of her reforms. The list is long.

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