Archive for December, 2014

Astrološka ura v Pragi

Astrološka ura na mestni hiši Starega mesta je bila narejena v 15. stol. (1490). Ura ne kaže samo časa, ampak tudi položaj sonca, lune itd. Poslikani koledar kaže dneve svetnikov, znamenja horoskopa ter dneve v mesecu. Legenda pravi, da so mojstra Hanuša, ki je izpopolnil ta mehanizem, mestni očetje oslepili, da ne bi prenašal skrivnosti naprej. Toda Hanuš je prepričal svojega vajenca, da ga je odpeljal v stolp do ure. Tam je potisnil v mehanizem orodje in ga ustavil za 80 let.

Predstava apostolov se zgodi vsakič, ko ura odbije polno uro. Najprej figuraSmrti na desni strani ure potegne vrv, ki jo drži v desni roki. V levi roki ima urno steklo, ki ga dvigne in obrne. Dve okni se odpreta in Apostoli (11 Apostolov in sv. Pavel) počasi sledijo sv. Petru. Na koncu tega dela petelin zakikirika in ura odbije. Naslednja premikajoča figura je Turek, simbol poželenja, ki premika glavo iz ene strani na drugo, Domišljavost, ki se gleda v ogledalo in Pohlep, ki je izposojen iz srednjeveškega židovskega posojevalca denarja.

Po projektantovem pogledu na Vesolje, je Zemlja postavljena v center. Namen ure ni prikazati točen čas, ampak imitirati orbite sonca in lune okrog Zemlje. Kazalec s soncem kaže tri različne čase: na zunanjem krogu so srednjeveške arabske številke, ki merijo star bohemski čas, v katerem je bilo 24 ur dneva preračunano od sončnega zahoda. Krog z rimskimi številkami, kaže čas, ki ga poznamo danes. Modri del ure predstavlja vidni del neba. Razdeljen je na 12 delov. V tako imenovanem babilonskem času je bil del dneva s sončno svetlobo razdeljen na 12 ur, ki so varirale glede na letni čas (poletje, zima). Ura prav tako kaže položaj sonca in lune skozi12 astroloških znamenj.

Spodaj je še koledar Jozefa Manesa iz leta 1866. Preštudiral je življenje bohemskega kmeta in ga prikazal s slikami za vsak mesec posebej. Na sredini je grb Starega mesta, za njim so meseci in astrološka znamenja, nato meseci prikazani z delom kmeta ter na zunanji strani še dnevi v letu.

Praga 017 Soncna ura

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Banjica and Sajmište concentration camps in Belgrade

Driving towards Avala, the hill above Belgrade with TV tower and mausoleum of unknown soldier made by Meštrovič, you pass Jajinci, today memorial park, in the Second World War Nazi execution place, where their last home found over 80.000 people, mostly Jews and Serbs. Many of them were prisoners who opposed the German occupation imprisoned in Banjica concentration camp. At the place in a memorial park stands a monument of victims.

If you take an old road from Belgrade to Kragujevac you pass former concentration camp Banjica as well. It stood close to military hospital at the exit from Belgrade in direction to Kragujevac. Before Germans entered Yugoslavia, here were Yugoslav Army barracks, after it was quisling Nazi concentration camp opened from 1941 to 1944. It was intended for systematic destruction of Jewish population living in Serbia. But later beside Jews included also Serbs, Roma, captured partisans and other persons which opposed Nazi regime. All together 23.637 names are registered.

Just after conquest of Yugoslavia all Jews were removed from professional and public services, some of them sent to forced labour, they had to wear yellow badges and registration of their property started. It was forbidden for Serbian population to hide Jews.

Already in 1941 in Central Serbia and east part of Bosnia Užice Republic was proclaimed. It was the first free-from-Nazis area in Europe. Upsprings were organised in fact all around German-occupied Serbia and as a respond to rebellions, Germans from Serbian Jews demanded forty hostages weekly.

The camp at Banjica was closed in September 1944. Link to the Museum of Banjica camp.

There was another camp in Belgrad, just at the enter to the city from west. The camp was formed on the left bank of the Sava river, on the place of pre-war fairground or sajmište. The camp was named after that – Sajmište. The area was deserted at the time, uninhabited and marshy, formally part of NDH (Independent State of Croatia). The camp was formed for imprisoning of Serbian resistance members and political prisoners, Serbian Jews and Serbian Roma. The number of prisoners is estimated at 40.000 of which 32.000 Serbian and 8.000 Jewish population. More about at Staro sajmište.

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